Mastering HIIT: From Science to Nutritional Strategies for Optimal Results
Every decade sees a transformative shift in the fitness landscape, and presently, HIIT is at the forefront. While this method is deeply rooted in time-honored training practices, its ascent to widespread acclaim has been swift. Explore the world of High Intensity Interval Training to understand its science, history, and benefits. By integrating it with optimal nutrition, you can supercharge your results. Let’s decode the dynamism and potency of HIIT!
What’s in this article:
- Unraveling the Buzzword: What Exactly is High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)?
- Fitness Buffs Raving About High-Intensity Workouts
- Navigating Your HIIT Journey: Tailoring, Track, and Measure My Sessions
- Decoding the HIIT Schedule: The Best Time to Power into Intensity
- Diverse and Dynamic: Exercises That Make-Up a Classic HIIT Routine
- All the Gains: What Mental and Physical Boosts HIIT Offers
- HIIT vs. Steady State Cardio: Which Reigns Supreme?
- Treading with Caution: What You Should Know About the Risks Tied to HIIT Workouts
- Fueling Intensity: Quick & Healthy Pre and Post HIIT Workout Meals
- Concluding Insights: The HIIT Revolution
Unraveling the Buzzword: What Exactly is High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)?
High Intensity Interval Training, more commonly known as HIIT, is a dynamic and transformative exercise regimen. This method involves involves repeated short-to-long bouts of rather high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods.1 The primary objective of HIIT is to push one’s body to the edge, allowing it a momentary pause, and then diving back into the intensity. Such sessions are typically shorter than traditional workouts but are just as, if not more, effective due to the elevated intensity and the cardiovascular demands.
The prominence of HIIT in recent years stems from its adaptability and time-efficiency. In our fast-paced world, dedicating extended hours to workouts can be challenging. However, HIIT stands out as it provides similar health benefits in significantly less time. The American College of Sports Medicine advises that adults practice moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory workouts for a minimum of 30 minutes on 5 days each week, summing up to 150 minutes. However, for those who are time-crunched or prefer to spend less time sweating it out, the recommendation for vigorous high-intensity training is just a fraction of that time—only 60 minutes, broken down into 20-minute sessions over 3 days weekly.2 This mode of training, especially when combined with appropriate nutrition, can lead to improved cardiovascular health, enhanced muscular endurance, and significant weight loss.
Fitness Buffs Raving About High-Intensity Workouts
The magnetic pull of high-intensity workouts lies in their multifaceted benefits. Firstly, HIIT acts as a time-saving beacon for those with tight schedules, allowing them to achieve optimum results in minimal time. The immediate aftermath of a HIIT session induces an elevated metabolic rate, causing the body to burn more calories even hours post-exercise – a phenomenon termed as Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC), also known as the “Afterburn Effect”.3 For those aiming at weight loss, HIIT emerges as a potent tool. The vigorous intensity ensures that a significant number of calories are torched in a concise time frame, often more than what traditional workouts might offer. Post a rigorous HIIT workout, the body continues to burn calories at an elevated rate, which when paired with a balanced diet, can lead to rapid weight loss.
Additionally, HIIT promotes lean muscle development, augments athletic prowess, fortifies cardiovascular health.4 It can provide a refreshing type of workout to your routine as well. Many amateur and professional athletes alike find the workouts challenging and push themselves to their physical limits, as HIIT sessions demand bursts of explosive energy, testing both endurance and mental grit.
Navigating Your HIIT Journey: Tailoring, Track, and Measure My Sessions
To craft an effective HIIT routine, monitoring your heart rate is crucial. During vigorous high-intensity bursts, your aim should be to touch 90% of your maximum heart rate.5,6 Between these bursts, as you rest or engage in low-intensity activities, your heart rate should drop to about 40-50% of its maximum. Employing heart rate monitors or fitness trackers can aid in achieving this delicate balance, ensuring that you not only challenge yourself but also do so safely. Beginning with moderate intensity and gradually upping the ante can also prevent injuries and ensure optimum outcomes.
Decoding the HIIT Schedule: The Best Time to Power into Intensity
Embarking on a HIIT journey necessitates a calibrated approach. If you’re new to this form of workout, starting with one or two sessions weekly is advisable. This frequency can be gradually increased as one builds stamina and strength. Enthusiasm for this type of workout is evident, especially when seeking to maximize gains for beloved endurance activities like running, swimming, cycling, and even pickleball. It’s invigorating to recognize that studies have shown HIIT can enhance aerobic performance in the short term, surpassing results often associated with low-intensity, high-volume endurance training.8,9,10,11,12,13,14 However, it’s pivotal to note that even for seasoned HIIT enthusiasts, it’s best to cap sessions to three or four times a week. This not only prevents overtraining but also offers muscles the much-needed respite to recuperate and grow. That said, due to its high-intensity nature, there’s a caveat: HIIT can sometimes be excessive. Rather than improving performance, some individuals might encounter stagnant results, increased physiological stress, and symptoms of overtraining.15
Diverse and Dynamic: Exercises That Make-Up a Classic HIIT Routine
HIIT is lauded for its versatility and adaptability. Common exercises that can be integrated into a HIIT routine include sprints, burpees, mountain climbers, and high knees. The most utilized protocol in past research has been the Wingate test which consists of 30?s of all-out maximal cycling against a high braking force on a stationary bike performing four to six sets separate by four minutes of recovery for a total of two to three minutes of very intense exercise.16. A stationary exercise bike isn’t required and it is a very versatile routine that can be adapted to running or even at-home workouts on an exercise mat. One could sprint with maximum effort for 30 seconds, followed by a 30-second stroll, repeating the cycle for about 20 minutes or checkout the Beginner HIIT Workout below. It’s crucial to adjust the intervals and exercise types to resonate with one’s fitness level. A proper warm-up and cool-down phase is also essential to sidestep potential injuries.
All the Gains: What Mental and Physical Boosts HIIT Offers
Beyond the apparent physical perks like enhanced cardiovascular endurance and muscle toning, HIIT also delivers psychological benefits. Engaging in high-intensity workouts has been associated with improved mood profiles, diminished depressive tendencies, and a general sense of well-being. A recent study delved into the effects of a 12-week HIIT regimen where the findings revealed significant reductions in depression, anxiety, and stress, underscoring the mental benefits of this rigorous workout approach.17
From a physical standpoint, HIIT offers more than just calorie burn and muscle challenge. Its unique format, which involves short bursts of high-energy exercise followed by rest periods, has been found to boost overall endurance and fitness levels in a short time frame. Intriguingly, some fitness enthusiasts have experimented with twice-a-day HIIT sessions and noticed improvements in their stamina and endurance in less than a week.18 However, as with any fitness regimen, it’s crucial to listen to your body. While HIIT is incredibly beneficial, it’s essential to strike a balance to avoid over-training and ensure you’re getting the most from your workouts without risking injury or burnout.
HIIT vs. Steady State Cardio: Which Reigns Supreme?
When comparing High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) to steady-state cardio, it’s like comparing a sprint to a marathon. Both have their merits, but they serve different purposes. HIIT involves short bursts of intense exercises punctuated by rest or low-intensity periods, allowing for a rigorous workout in a condensed time frame. This method is hailed for its efficiency, potentially burning more calories in a shorter amount of time and spiking metabolism even post-workout. Steady-state cardio, on the other hand, involves maintaining a consistent, moderate level of intensity, like a prolonged jog. It’s excellent for building endurance and can be less taxing on the body. While HIIT might offer quicker results for fat loss and muscle building, steady-state cardio is often more sustainable for beginners and those looking for a less intense, yet longer, workout session.19 Ultimately, the best choice depends on individual goals, fitness levels, and preferences.
Treading with Caution: What You Should Know About the Risks Tied to HIIT Workouts
High-intensity exercise and training can deliver numerous health benefits, but it’s crucial to recognize the associated risks. The rigorous nature of such workouts can increase the risk of injuries, especially if performed incorrectly. Prolonged HIIT without adequate rest can lead to burnout, diminished immune function, and a higher chance of injuries. Additionally, these intense workouts can induce heightened oxidative stress. Although our body has antioxidant defense systems, high-intensity activities might produce free radicals faster than the body can neutralize them. This imbalance, known as oxidative stress, is linked with aging and several chronic diseases. As we age, this stress becomes even more prevalent. While some turn to antioxidant supplements like Resveratrol for protection, their effectiveness requires more research. To maximize benefits and minimize risks, consider balancing high-intensity routines with moderate exercises and ensure proper technique during workouts.20
Additionally, those on specific medications, especially statins, should exercise caution. Statins, while instrumental in cholesterol regulation, can increase muscle injury risk during high-intensity workouts.21
Key Term: Oxidative Stress: Oxidative stress is when there’s an imbalance between free radicals (unstable molecules) and the body’s ability to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects. Think of it as a “rusting” process inside our bodies.
Fueling Intensity: Quick & Healthy Pre and Post HIIT Workout Meals
Pre-Workout Meal (To be consumed 1-1.5 hours before the workout):
- 1 medium banana (provides quick energy)
- 1/2 cup of Greek yogurt (for some protein and good texture)
- 1 tablespoon almond butter (healthy fats to keep you full)
- 1 tablespoon chia seeds (for added fiber and energy)
- 1 cup of unsweetened almond milk or water
- Optional: A small pinch of salt (to balance electrolytes) and a drizzle of honey or maple syrup for sweetness.
Post-Workout Meal (To be consumed within 30 minutes to 1 hour after the workout):
- Grilled Chicken Salad:
- 4-6 oz grilled chicken breast (lean protein for muscle recovery)
- Mixed leafy greens (spinach, arugula, kale – rich in vitamins and minerals)
- 1/4 avocado (healthy fats and helps in nutrient absorption)
- Cherry tomatoes, cucumber slices, and shredded carrots (additional vitamins and crunch)
- Quinoa or brown rice (1/2 cup cooked for carbohydrates to restore energy)
- Dressing: Olive oil, lemon juice, a touch of Dijon mustard, salt, and pepper whisked together.
Remember to drink plenty of water before, during, and after the workout to stay hydrated. Adjust portion sizes based on individual needs and dietary restrictions.
Concluding Insights: The HIIT Revolution
As the world of fitness evolves, HIIT firmly cements its place as a powerful tool in the arsenal of those seeking potent results in compact time frames. Its multifaceted benefits, from rapid calorie burn to psychological wellness, make it an alluring choice. However, like any tool, the effectiveness of HIIT depends on its judicious use. Balancing intensity with recovery, combining it with the right nutritional strategies, and being aware of its demands on the body are critical to harnessing its full potential without undue risks. Whether you’re a fitness novice or a seasoned athlete, understanding the nuances of HIIT can empower you to sculpt a regimen that’s both safe and profoundly transformative. The journey through high-intensity terrains may be rigorous, but with the right knowledge and preparation, the rewards can be truly exhilarating. Embrace the intensity, fuel it right, and let the HIIT revolution elevate your fitness game!
- Billat LV. Interval training for performance: a scienti?c and empirical practice: special recommendations for middle- and long-distance running. Part I: aerobic interval training. Sports Med. 2001;1:13–31
- Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):1334-1359. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb
- Chantal A. Vella, Ph.D. & Len Kravitz, Ph.D. Exercise After-Burn: Research Update
- American College of Cardiology. High-Intensity Interval Training Helps Trim Belly Fat in Cardiac Rehab Mar 06, 2019
- Deborah Riebe, Jonathan K Ehrman, Gary Liguori, Meir Magal. Chapter 6 General Principles of Exercise Prescription. In: ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 10th Ed. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA: 2018, 143-179.
- Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee [PDF-4.6MB]. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services; 2008.
- CDC.gov Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Last Reviewed: June 3, 2022
- Rodas G., Ventura J. L., Cadefau J. A., Cussó R., Parra J. (2000). A short training programme for the rapid improvement of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 82, 480–486. 10.1007/s004210000223
- Laursen P. B., Jenkins D. G. (2002). The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training: optimising training programmes and maximising performance in highly trained endurance athletes. Sports Med. 32, 53–73. 10.2165/00007256-200232010-00003
- Jensen L., Bangsbo J., Hellsten Y. (2004). Effect of high intensity training on capillarization and presence of angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle. J. Physiol. 1, 571–582. 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.057711
- Helgerud J., Høydal K., Wang E., Karlsen T., Berg P., Bjerkaas M., et al.. (2007). Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 39, 665–671. 10.1249/mss.0b013e3180304570
- Laursen P. B. (2010). Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training? Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 2, 1–10. 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01184.x
- de Araujo G. G., Gobatto C. A., Marcos-Pereira M., Dos Reis I. G., Verlengia R. (2015). Interval versus continuous training with identical workload: physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations. Physiol. Res. 64, 209–219.
- Naimo M. A., de Souza E. O., Wilson J. M., Carpenter A. L., Gilchrist P., Lowery R. P., et al.. (2015). High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players. Int. J. Sports Med. 36, 61–66. 10.1055/s-0034-1382054
- Billat V. L., Flechet B., Petit B., Muriaux G., Koralsztein J. P. (1999). Interval training at VO2max: effects on aerobic performance and overtraining markers. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 31, 156–163. 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00024
- Gibala, Martin J.1; McGee, Sean L.2. Metabolic Adaptations to Short-term High-Intensity Interval Training: A Little Pain for a Lot of Gain?. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 36(2):p 58-63, April 2008. | DOI: 10.1097/JES.0b013e318168ec1f
- Patten, R.K., McIlvenna, L.C., Moreno-Asso, A. et al. Efficacy of high-intensity interval training for improving mental health and health-related quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Sci Rep 13, 3025 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-29503-1
- Atakan MM, Li Y, Ko?ar ?N, Turnagöl HH, Yan X. Evidence-Based Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Exercise Capacity and Health: A Review with Historical Perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(13):7201. Published 2021 Jul 5. doi:10.3390/ijerph18137201
- Heinrich, K.M., Patel, P.M., O’Neal, J.L. et al. High-intensity compared to moderate-intensity training for exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions: an intervention study. BMC Public Health 14, 789 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-789
- Liguori I, Russo G, Curcio F, et al. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases. Clin Interv Aging. 2018;13:757-772. Published 2018 Apr 26. doi:10.2147/CIA.S158513
- Deichmann RE, Lavie CJ, Asher T, DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Thompson PD. The Interaction Between Statins and Exercise: Mechanisms and Strategies to Counter the Musculoskeletal Side Effects of This Combination Therapy. Ochsner J. 2015;15(4):429-437.